From basic cash-dispenser functionality automated teller machines (ATMs) have evolved to provide many of the services available through a branch. These range from basic account management services such as transferring funds from one account to another, paying bills, setting up standing orders and so on, to more sophisticated functions such as buying mutual [...]

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Rental risk

Banks that do not own their branches are exposed to the risks that rents will rise pushing up their operating [...]


The costs of transactions carried out in branches scale with the volume of transactions. This is not the case with most other delivery channels. The marginal cash cost of a [...]

Tying up capital

Banks that own their own branches tie up capital. Capital is a scarce resource and its management is one of the key factors in adding value to the [...]


Branches provide a relatively expensive delivery channel. The cost of a simple transaction, such as depositing a check or making a cash withdrawal, in a branch is many times [...]


Branches have been the traditional means banks have used to provide services to their customers. In many countries local banks have been protected from foreign bank [...]